Paine published his version of Twain's work in , and in time, as one might imagine to be the result of tampering with a dead man's work, controversy ensued.
Simmons It was not until that Twain's original writing was made available for public viewing. This was when William M. The primary difference between the four versions is essentially that they are different stories with different plots and characters, and that, as critics suggest, they propose different views of life and behavior, and perhaps even suggestions about the meaning of life and correct behavior that differ between versions.
The Mysterious Stranger: A Romance , most of which has actually been written by Twain, is a criticism of human society presented to the reader through the story of three young Austrian boys visited in by a young angel named Satan, who appears from time to time at significant moments and teaches the boys about the atrocity and ignorance of the pitiful human race through direct and indirect means.
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Throughout the story, young Satan has the tendency to challenge the boys' beliefs in and about God, of which Satan knows only very incapable and misguided humans would conceive. The first option Simmons proposes is that of imagining that God exists, an idea that Simmons implies is very limiting. Understanding and acknowledgment of this plan creates meaning in life for such believers, even if at the same time they are burdened by profound misunderstanding of the world around them, which God has created. Things that we cannot comprehend, which include the very unjust actions we witness daily and which we hold to be the obstacles that heed our transformation into a critical society, are looked at as just another part of this plan that we believe is designed to ultimately work in our favor Simmons In The Mysterious Strange: A Romance , the main character Theodor Fischer speaks of such a conception of God while describing his dreamlike town, tucked away in the middle of peaceful Austria:.
Within the story, Satan appears to condemn the tendency of humans to attribute human qualities to supreme beings, particularly to God, using himself to express this idea. While spending time with Theodor, Seppi, and Nikolaus, Satan interrupts Theodor's thought that having the ability to know what another person is thinking was Satan's most wonderful quality:. I am not limited like you. I am not subject to human conditions. I can measure and understand your human weaknesses, for I have studied them; but I have none of them.
In personifying God, such as attributing to God human qualities like pleasure or displeasure, sympathy, love or anger, humans make the assumption that through particular actions they are able to evoke emotional responses from a supreme creator.
Consequentially, many believe that as long as they remain faithful, the atrocities that they commit will be forgiven. They place responsibility for their own life and the actions they take in the hands of another. This is obviously a path in life that Twain chose to condemn in his writing. Because he set out to question the notion of God and, interchangeably, authorship. In The Mysterious Stranger: A Romance , as well as other versions of the work, Twain uses Satan's conversations with Theodor to present the idea that no man can be rightly called an author, for he has only the capacity to imagine, and creation is an ability possessed by gods alone.
In What is Man? He suggests to a boy he is talking with who is much like Theodor , that even Shakespeare, held in human hearts as high as the heavens, is not a creator but a machine:. The second possibility Simmons proposes is that of accepting that the previously mentioned evidence of God's existence comes, perhaps in the postmodern era, to challenge the belief in God's existence as a supreme creator with human limitations.abusagegeq.cf
The Mysterious Stranger and Other Stories by Mark Twain (Free Audio Book)
When Satan tells Theodor that he has business elsewhere, in another world well beyond the grasp of his imagination, and must part for good, Theodor asks Satan if he will see him, his dear friend, in another life. Satan shatters Theodor's perception of reality, telling him that life is but a dream:.
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If we come to terms with believing that God does not exist, the physical and metaphysical aspects of life eating, sleeping, imagining, constructing, communicating do not change. The purposes behind our pursuits may, but I believe that even if we accept that there is no omniscient author of our world, no grand plan for our species, we can still find meaning.
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Some very spiritual people which we hold in high esteem, such as the 14th Dalai Lama, believe that the purpose of life, at its simplest, is existence itself. Simmons and others argue that devoting our existence to a supreme creator is very limiting. For all intents and purposes, it dictates our actions, giving us only one way in and one way out.
Accepting that God does not exist opens a world of possibilities. My interpretation of Twain's work nearly parallels Simmons'.
After reading The Mysterious Stranger: A Romance , which is practically a religious text in itself, I feel the need to answer questions left entirely up to me, the reader, by Twain. He is at once visible and tangible yet mystifying and elusive. An afterword by Alan Gribben traces the critical history of the "Mysterious Stranger" manuscripts and the contributions of previous critics.
A wide-ranging critical introduction and a comprehensive bibliography on the last century of scholarship bracket the contributions. Close inspection of this multidimensional novel shows how Twain evolved as a self-conscious thinker and humorist--and that he was a more conscious artist throughout his career than has been previously thought. Centenary Reflections deepens our understanding of one of Twain's most misunderstood texts, confirming that the author of No. An unknown error has occurred.
Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Centenary Reflections on Mark Twain's No.