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It's a heroic compendium of the achievements and follies of the millions of strivers who've toiled in New York since Peter Minuit bought the island that the Indians called manahactanienk —meaning, appropriately enough, 'place of inebriation'—in If data about the city can be ranked, ranked it is here.

The Encyclopedia of New York City is an engrossing book of marvels, as monumental in its way as its wondrous subject. Kranz, The Bloomsbury Review.

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Felice C. Th e neighborhood has a varied architecture that includes nineteenth-century row houses, apartment buildings, tenements, and commercial buildings, as well as factory buildings and ware houses at Westbeth and the Gansevoort Meat Market that have been converted into residences for artists and expensive condos. Its principal commercial thoroughfares are Hudson Street and Bleecker Street, which are lined with specialty shops and restaurants. A restoration in transformed the 0.

The course of abolitionism in New York City followed that within the state in general in many matters. Gouverneur Morris introduced a resolution to eliminate slavery in New York State at the state constitutional convention in ; a large majority of the delegates approved it. However, no further action was taken until when the state legislature debated several abolitionist measures. Among them was a plan introduced by Aaron Burr to free all slaves immediately, which won the support of Federalists who sought to extend civil rights to blacks but was soundly defeated; another plan calling for gradual emancipation, which a majority of the legislature supported, failed because it would also have extended suffrage to blacks.

Federalists concentrated on ending the slave trade and in passed a bill banning the sale of slaves in New York State but allowing slaves to be brought into the state and remain there for no longer than nine months.

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The society mediated indentureship negotiations and provided legal assistance to African Americans who were denied their freedom; its efforts to ensure compliance with the law of were largely unsuccessful because slave owners often found loopholes that allowed sales of slaves out of state. The legislature in passed the Act for the Gradual Emancipation of Negroes and Other Slaves, which declared free the children of slaves born on or after 4 July, granted freedom to slaves born before that date at the age of 24 for women and 28 for men, and required the registration of children indentured to their masters until the age of manumission.


To end abuses of the law the legislature in declared all slaves free as of 4 July In the state rescinded the provisions allowing nonresidents to hold slaves for as long as nine months. Abolition did not end discrimination against blacks in New York, who were denied full rights of citizenship.

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Meanwhile, many free blacks joined the abolitionist movement, which was also taken up by the first black newspapers in New York City, Freedom's Journal —29 and the Rights of All The city became an abolitionist center during the s and in home to the American Anti-Slavery Society, the first national organization of its kind. Some of its most influential members were leaders of the city's black community, including Samuel E.

Cornish and Theodore S.

The Flight Path of Chopper That Crashed in New York City

Under the society's auspices Wright and Henry Highland Garnet made speaking tours of the northern and western states and with other black abolitionists from the city became leading spokesmen for the antislavery movement: they argued that blacks would not enjoy the full rights of citizenship until slavery was eradicated throughout the country.

By demonstrating political acumen and oratorical skills, they also sought to destroy myths of inferiority that provided a basis for discriminatory legislation. Interracial tensions mounted during the s. Many white abolitionists advocated repatriating blacks to Africa, leading blacks to build a separate movement against racism while continuing to work with whites. Pennington attended the first National Negro Convention in Philadelphia from 15 to 24 September , the first of several such conventions held during the s.

At the New York State Negro Convention, held in New York City on 25 January , a number of delegates denounced efforts by the New York Colonization Society to resettle blacks in Africa as a scheme to perpetuate slavery and proclaimed their dedication to abolition and the uplift of free blacks. Abolitionism failed to win much support among whites and even intensified antiblack sentiment among white workers who viewed blacks as competitors in the labor market.

During a several-day rampage in known as the Journeymen's Riot, white day laborers disrupted a meeting of abolitionists at Chatham Street Chapel and attacked the homes of Lewis Tappan and scores of African Americans. The Colored American , launched in , provided coverage of the movement until ceasing publication in Black churches became the most important venues for abolitionism. He then founded and served as the first chairman of the National Council for History Education, a larger and more ambitious organization with a similar mission.

Headquartered in Ohio, it now has a multi-million dollar annual budget, seven thousand dues-paying members, and active affiliates in more than forty states; by , its recommendations had already influenced curricular reform in fifteen states and hundreds of school districts. In addition, Professor Jackson has directed seven National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for either high school or college instructors and eleven intensive summer programs for the Gilder-Lehrman Institute for American History.

At Columbia, he teaches courses in urban, social, and military history.


The Ku Klux Klan in the City, The Almanac of New York City. American Vistas. Cities in American History. Atlas of American History. Crabgrass Frontier: the Suburbanization of the United States. Editor-in-Chief, Dictionary of American Biography. The Neighborhoods of Brooklyn.