Clements Library, University of Michigan. SNAC is a discovery service for persons, families, and organizations found within archival collections at cultural heritage institutions. The Andrew W. Toggle navigation snac. Simcoe, John Graves, Alternative names. Hide Profile.
WorldCat record id: Lt. Governor of Upper Canada. View Collection Locations. Archival Resources. Autobiography of Stephen Jarvis : Typescript, . Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, John D. Library creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. University of Guelph referencedIn Hamilton, Henry, d.
Correspondence, Orderly book, , 28 June to 19 October. Library referencedIn Simcoe, Elizabeth, Clements Library , University of Michigan referencedIn 1. Malcolm Flemming to -and to J. Nourse, the bookseller; Brigg , 22 Nov. British Library referencedIn Ewing, William.
John Graves Simcoe 1752-1806
Letter : Geneceo [sic], to Israel Chapin, Esq. Book relative to Indian affairs : journals to treaties, Newberry Library referencedIn Vol. Osgoode: William Windham, Secretary of State, etc: General political correspondence: Selected materials on Indian affairs, Journal of the operations of the Queen's Rangers : autograph manuscript draft, before Papers, July Dec.
Maps and Plans: Plans of earthworks in Shropshire, by E. Downman: John D. Suckling: Howe: Houghton Library.
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John Graves Simcoe Writing Hon. After Simcoe's Return to England Nov. Document Signed J.
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Simcoe [Elizabeth Postuma Simcoe], Humphreys: Letters to W. Windham: Aitkin d surveyor Letter book of John Graves Simcoe, , Jan. Henry Clinton papers, Letter to J. King [manuscript], April University of Virginia. Library referencedIn Vol. XXXVI ff. University of Guelph referencedIn Virginia. Public Foundry. Agency history. Library of Virginia referencedIn Flaxman, John, Autograph letter signed : Buckingham Street [London], to R. Eales, Feb. Pierpont Morgan Library. Library creatorOf Hammond, George, Descriptive account of propsal presented to the British Parliament, John Graves Simcoe papers, , bulk Edward Miller journal, Windham: , References to Governor Simcoe.
University of Guelph referencedIn Pickering, Timothy, He left Canada in September 1 , and was immediately afterwards sent on a mission to San Domingo, from which, however, he returned in a few months on account of ill-health. In October he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- general, and appointed colonel of the 22nd foot. During he was in command at Plymouth. Desiring more active service, he was designated commander-in-chief for India to succeed Lord Lake, but before taking the appointment his health broke and he died at Exeter on the 26th of October See D.
Scott, John Graves Simcoe Hidden category: Subpages. Namespaces Page Discussion. The Act established separate governments and legislative assemblies for each province. Lower Canada was the French-speaking eastern portion, which retained the French civil law and protections for the Roman Catholic Church established when Britain took over the area after its defeat of the French in the Seven Years' War.
Upper Canada was the western area, newly settled after the American Revolutionary War. The settlers were mostly English speakers, including Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies , and also the Six Nations of the Iroquois , who had been British allies during the war. The Crown had purchased land from the Mississauga and other First Nations to give the Loyalists land grants in partial compensation for property lost in the United States, and to help them set up new communities and develop this territory.
Simcoe was appointed Lieutenant-Governor on 12 September , and left for Canada with his wife Elizabeth and daughter Sophia, leaving three daughters behind in England with their aunt. They left England in September and arrived in Canada on 11 November. Due to severe weather, the Simcoes spent the winter in Quebec City. Simcoe finally reached Kingston, Upper Canada on 24 June In a proclamation on 16 July , he renamed several islands at the mouth of the archipelago at the head of the St.
Under the Constitutional Act, the provincial government consisted of the Lieutenant-Governor, an appointed Executive Council and Legislative Council, and an elected Legislative Assembly. The first meeting of the nine-member Legislative Council and sixteen-member Legislative Assembly took place at Newark now Niagara-on-the-Lake on 17 September The Upper Canadians valued their common law legal system, as opposed to the civil law of Quebec, which had chafed them ever since This was one of the primary reasons for the partition of Simcoe collaborated extensively with his Attorney-General John White on the file.
The principles of the British Constitution do not admit of that slavery which Christianity condemns. The moment I assume the Government of Upper Canada under no modification will I assent to a law that discriminates by dishonest policy between natives of Africa, America, or Europe. Slavery was thus ended in Upper Canada long before it was abolished in the British Empire as a whole. By , there were no slaves in Upper Canada, but the Crown did not abolish slavery throughout the Empire until This conflict had begun in , and was still raging when Simcoe arrived in Simcoe had hoped to form an Indian buffer state between the two countries, even though he distrusted Joseph Brant , the main Indian leader.
Simcoe rejected the section of the Treaty of Paris which awarded that area to the US, on the grounds that American actions had nullified the treaty.
The government in London decided to seek good terms with the United States. Simcoe was instructed to avoid giving the US reason to mistrust Britain but, at the same time, to keep the Natives on both sides of the border friendly to Britain. The Indians asked for British military support, which was initially refused, but in Britain supplied the Indians with rifles and ammunition. In February , the governor general , Lord Dorchester , expecting the US to ally with France, said that war was likely to break out between the US and Britain before the year was out. This encouraged the Indians in their war.
Simcoe expelled Americans from a settlement on the southern shore of Lake Erie which had threatened British control of the lake. US President Washington denounced the "irregular and high-handed proceeding of Mr. Simcoe realised that Newark made an unsuitable capital because it was on the Canada—US border and subject to attack. He proposed moving the capital to a more defensible position, in the middle of Upper Canada's southwestern peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Huron.
He named the new location London , and renamed the river there the Thames in anticipation of the change.
Portrait of John Graves Simcoe, [OHQ2-PICTURES-… | Flickr
Dorchester rejected this proposal, but accepted Simcoe's second choice, the present site of Toronto. The town was severely underdeveloped at the time of its founding so he brought with him politicians, builders, Nova Scotia timber men, and Englishmen skilled in whipsawing and cutting joists and rafters. Simcoe began construction of two roads through Upper Canada, for defence and to encourage settlement and trade. Soldiers of the Queen's Rangers began cutting the road in August , reaching Holland Landing in They made peace under the Treaty of Greenville.
While still at war with France, Britain could not afford to antagonise the US in the Jay Treaty of , and agreed to withdraw north of the Great Lakes, as agreed in the Treaty of Paris Simcoe evacuated the frontier forts. In Simcoe had been appointed Major-General.
Lieutenant-General John Graves Simcoe 1752-1806
In July poor health gout and neuralgia  forced him to return to Britain. He was unable to return to Upper Canada and resigned his office in He served briefly as the commander of British forces in Saint-Domingue later Haiti. There, in the spring of , he defended the coastal town of Saint-Marc but lost Mirebalais and the Central Plateau to the forces of Toussaint Louverture , leader of the slave revolt and by that point commander-in-chief of the French Republican forces on the island.
Simcoe was appointed colonel of the 81st Foot in , but exchanged the position for the 22nd Foot less than six months later. He was also promoted to Lieutenant-General and was made commander of the Western District. In , he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India to succeed Cornwallis , who had died shortly after arriving in India. Simcoe died in Exeter before assuming the post.
Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake , was reappointed to replace Simcoe. The Ontario Heritage Foundation acquired title to the chapel in